It is the greatest mosque in Madina / Medina. It is the place where camel of Prophet Muhammad sallallahoAlaiheWasallam knelt down first when he migrated to Madina/ Medina. He first stayed as guest at khalid bin Zaid Abu Ayyood Ansaris home for seven months. With the ten golds donated by Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddeeque, he bought a plot and leveled it. It was roofed with branches and leaves of date. It had three entrances. The depth of the foundation was three arshins (one and half meters), the same size as the thickness of the walls. The foundation was laid with stones and walls were built with sun-dried bricks. The mosque/ masjid was 100 arshins long and wide, seven arahins tall. Prophet Muhammad sallallahoAlaiheWasallam placed the first foundation stone with his blessed hands. Then he ordered Hazrat Abu Bakr, Hazrat Umar, Hazrat Usman and Hazrat ‘Ali to put a stone beside this stone. respectively. On right and left hand sides of the nine additional rooms were made for his blessed wives. The room which was nearest the mosque was allotted to Hazrat Ayeshah. Prophet Muhammad sallallahoAlaiheWasallam performed all his namazes in jama‘at in this mosque whenever he stayed in Madina.
The term is understood to mean retirement to masjid for continuous ‘ibadat, which is of three sorts:
· Itikaf vajib
· Itikaf sunnat-e muakkadah
· Itikaf mustahab
When a nazr (oath) is made and fulfilled. For instance, a person makes intention that if such and such thing is done then I will stay in mosque for one day or two days. In this given situation as soon as the desired work is completed Itikaf becomes vajib on him.
It should be noted that fasting (rozah) is a prerequisite for vajib e‘tikaf. Without fasting vajib e‘tikaf is incorrect.
Itikaf sunnat-e muakkadah:
Itikaf to be performed in the last third of Ramazan (i.e. last ten days in the month of Ramazan) is sunnat-e muakkadah. Performer of this Itikaf will have to enter mosque from sunset of 20th Ramadan with the niyyat of Itikaf and will have to remain in the mosque until 30th sunset (or 29th sunset if moon is seen).
This Itikaf is sunnat-e kifayah. If one person within the community performs it, the responsibility from the whole community of that area is over. If no one performs it then all (whole community) of that particular area will be held responsible.
Fasting is a condition for this e‘tikaf but the Ramazan fasts are sufficient.
Except for the Itikaf vajib and sunnat any other Itikaf would come in the category of mustahab.
Fasting is not a prerequisite for this sort of Itikaf. This sort of Itikaf can be performed by a person going to mosque/ masjid even for a short while. Simply he has to make intention of mustahab e‘tikaf for Allah. When he comes out of the mosque/ masjid, e‘tikaf is over.
· Masjid-e shatvee (hall of the Mosque / Masjid)
· Masjid-e sayfee (courtyard of the Mosque / Masjid)
· Issues pertaining to courtyard of the Mosque / Masjid
· Issues pertaining to hall of the Mosque / Masjid
Mosque / Masjid can be divided into two parts:
· Masjid-e shatvee
· Masjid-e sayfee
Roofed (musaqqaf) part or hall of the Mosque / Masjid, which safeguards the namazee from odds of the atmospheric effect, is known as masjid-e shatvee. Once namazee is inside the masjid-e shatvee, he is safe from extreme cold of winter, extreme heat of summer, rain or storm (rainstorm, snowstorm or tornado)
Open to sky (ghair-musaqqaf) part of the Mosque / Masjid is known as masjid-e sayfee. This part is also known as courtyard of the mosque. In past era when there was no electricity, people used to perform congregational salat / namaz of fajr, maghrib and isha in the courtyard of the mosque (means in the masjid-e sayfee) in summer, so that namazee can perform salat/ namaz comfortably in natural cool atmosphere and save them from the heat of roofed part of the Mosque / Masjid.
Aforesaid discussion clearly indicates that courtyard of the Mosque / Masjid is a part of Mosque / Masjid and this segment of the Mosque / Masjid in also meant for ibadat and hence all rules and regulations of the Mosque / Masjid are applicable to this part too!
Construction of the Mosque / Masjid :
Issue: It is vajib to build a principal Mosque (jama-masjid) in all cities. Further, it has been commanded to build a Mosque in every locality (mohallah)
Hadith / Hadis Shareef:
أمَرَ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ تَعَالى عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِبِنَآءِ الْمَسَاجِدِ
فِى الدَّارِ وَالتَّنَظُّفِ
Prophet Muhammad sallallahoAlaiheWasallam has narrated that there should be a Mosque in every locality and they should be kept neat and clean.
Issue: Money used in the construction of a Mosque is not merely expenditure in building material but to please our Rabb.
Prophet Muhammad sallallahoAlaiheWasallam has narrated that:
مَنْ بَنى مَسْجدًا بَنَى اللهُ لَه‘ بَيْتًا فِى الْجَنَّةِ مِنْ دُرِّ وَ يَاقُوْتٍ
Allah may bestow house made of pearls and sapphire in paradise to those who construct mosque for Him.
Design of the Mosque / Masjid:
Fundamental theme behind every building design is to make it useful in all weather conditions. Therefore it is designed grossly in two parts:
· Roofed part (musaqqaf) or hall
· Open to sky (ghair-musaqqaf) or courtyard
Roofed part (hall)
|Open to sky (courtyard)